The cervix is the lower part of the uterus, the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. The cervix has a small opening that expands during childbirth. It also allows menstrual blood to leave a woman’s body.
Your health care provider may perform a Pap test during your health checkup to look for changes to the cells of the cervix, including cervical cancer. Other problems with the cervix include:
- Cervicitis – inflammation of the cervix. This is usually from an infection.
- Cervical incompetence – This can happen during pregnancy. The opening of the cervix widens long before the baby is due.
- Cervical polyps and cysts – abnormal growths on the cervix
The vulva is the external part of a woman’s genitals. Some problems you can have with the vulvar area include
- Vaginitis or vulvovaginitis, swelling or infection of the vulva and vagina
- Skin problems due to allergy
- Vulvar cancer
- Vulvodynia, or vulvar pain
Symptoms may include redness, itching, pain, or cracks in the skin. Treatment depends on the cause.